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The Construction of the Taj Mahal


The construction of the Taj Mahal, an iconic marble mausoleum located in Agra, India, began in 1632 and was completed in 1653. It is widely regarded as a symbol of love and a masterpiece of Mughal architecture. The Taj Mahal was built by the Mughal Emperor Shah Jahan in memory of his beloved wife Mumtaz Mahal and is now owned by the Government of India. The structure was designated a UNESCO World Heritage Site in 1983.

Let’s take a look at the details of the construction of the Taj Mahal:

  • Planning and construction began in 1632
  • Construction was completed in 1653
  • Built by Mughal Emperor Shah Jahan in memory of his beloved wife Mumtaz Mahal
  • Now owned by the Government of India
  • Designated a UNESCO World Heritage Site in 1983

Overview of the Taj Mahal

The Taj Mahal is a symbol of love and beauty that stands majestically on the banks of the Yamuna River in Agra, India. Built by Mughal Emperor Shah Jahan in honor of his beloved wife Mumtaz Mahal, it has become an iconic monument recognized around the world.

The construction of the Taj Mahal began around 1632 and took nearly 20 years to complete, employing over 20 thousand artisans and craftsmen from all over Asia. It is believed to have been built out of white marble sourced from Rajasthan, India and semi-precious stones from China, Sri Lanka and Tibet. The main elements of its design are:

  • A large domed marble mausoleum at its center
  • Four towering minarets
  • Two mosques towards the endpoints
  • Reflecting pools at each side
  • A terraced garden with divided pathways leading up to it

And many other ornately decorated structures like gateways and galleries. The mosque has three large entry gates on each side carved with beautiful geometric designs.

Throughout centuries hundreds of artists have continued to contribute their skills to maintain the beauty of this prized monument. The government currently owns most parts of this heritage structure apart from small portions which are held privately by some individuals or organizations– though they also follow certain precautions as laid down by Archeological Survey Of India (ASI), who are dedicated to preserving its original grandeur.

Who owns the Taj Mahal?

The Taj Mahal is an eighteenth-century mausoleum located in Agra, India. It is widely considered to be one of the most beautiful buildings in the world and is a renowned symbol of love and commitment. The intricate details on its facade are testament to the skill of its builders, artisans, and architects, who helped to make it a true masterpiece. But who owns this majestic monument?

The Taj Mahal is owned by the Government of India and as such has been declared as a protected monument under the Archaeological Survey of India (ASI). The ASI was established in 1861 to conserve ancient monuments throughout India, but particularly those of national importance such as the Taj Mahal. This public body is primarily responsible for maintaining and preserving this incredible building.

The ASI also manages any repairs or renovations that are needed on the Taj Mahal, ensuring that it continues to remain a symbol of both beauty and national pride for years to come. While many historical records give credit for designing the monument’s structure to Ustad Ahmad Lahori, little else is known about its origins or ownership before being taken over by the government.


The Taj Mahal is an iconic monument recognized throughout the world. Its stunning beauty has attracted millions of visitors annually, and the Taj Mahal has been praised for its grandeur and innovation. It was first commissioned in 1632 by Mughal Emperor Shah Jahan as a memorial to his beloved wife, Mumtaz Mahal. The construction of the structure took approximately 22 years to complete and was completed in 1654.

Background of the Mughal Empire

The history and construction of the Taj Mahal is inextricably linked to the history of the Mughal Empire. The Mughal Empire ruled India and parts of South Asia from 1526 to 1858, making it one of the longest lasting dynasties in Indian history. The empire was founded by Babur, a descendant of Genghis Khan and Tamerlane that had taken control over much of Delhi in 1526.

During its rule, the Mughal empire was generally tolerant of a minority faith like Hinduism, with cultural and architectural advances coming out of their reign such as impressive monuments like Fatehpur Sikri and even more impressively, the Taj Mahal. Constructed by Mughal Emperor Shah Jahan between 1632-1653, the Taj Mahal is an incredible example of Indian architecture since it combines elements from Hindu, Islamic, Persian and Turkish styles. The white marble palace that stands today on banks of River Yamuna is a stunning testimony to the unconditional love between Shah Jahan and his third wife Mumtaz Mahal who died during childbirth. Her death deeply affected Shah Jahan who immediately began work on creating a mausoleum fit for his beloved queen. Artisans from Persia, India and Europe were recruited to work on constructing this grand monument which include impressive minarets with their distinct bulbous shape found throughout Islamic architecture as well as inlaid detailing made out of precious stones such as jade or lapis lazuli.

  • The Taj Mahal today stands as an indelible part of Indian culture despite being part of an empire built upon conquest and tolerance rather than political ideals – however its’ construction serves to capture how established power worked at that time:
  • how one emperor used his subjects’ knowledge —and labor — to create something that transcended religion or race;
  • something beautiful despite oppressive marginalization umber Sir Khan

The last Mughal emperor Humayun died in 1858 leaving no heir – marking the end for this remarkable dynasty which left its mark on India still seen today at every corner: be it palaces, monuments or everyday structures from gates to public works – all keep a piece intact from those times gone by long ago!

The Construction of the Taj Mahal

The Taj Mahal is an ivory-white marble mausoleum located in Agra, Uttar Pradesh, India. It was built in 1632 by Emperor Shah Jahan in memory of his third wife, Mumtaz Mahal. The construction of the Taj Mahal began in 1632 and was completed 20 years later.

The structure was designed and constructed by a team of architects who had come from all over the world to Agra. The main architect was Ustad Ahmad Lahauri, who also coordinated the work of several thousand artisans, craftsmen and other laborers from India, Persia, Turkey and Europe who were involved in the project.

The Taj Mahal itself is composed of white marble which had been brought from Makrana (Rajasthan). Semi-precious stones such as lapis lazuli, agate, amethyst and jade were used especially for its decorative calligraphic inscriptions. The centerpiece is a majestic dome made out of white marble with a finial perched atop it – representing faith that carries through eternity!

Various other features such as gardens, minarets and fountains surround the mausoleum – these combined with the intricate geometric patterns on red sandstone offer visitors an experience that is nothing less than magical. To this day it remains one of the Seven Wonders of the World and has been designated as a UNESCO World Heritage Site since 1983. To this day it’s still owned by the Indian government due to its immense cultural value.

Architectural Design

Built in the 17th century by Mughal Emperor Shah Jahan in memory of his wife Mumtaz Mahal, the Taj Mahal is an epitome of architectural excellence. The design of the Taj Mahal has captivated architects and art historians alike, as it is a perfect blend of Indian, Persian and Islamic architectural styles.

The four facades of the Taj Mahal are symmetrically designed and decorated with motifs, calligraphy and inlay work. Let’s take a closer look at the architectural design of the Taj Mahal:

  • Motifs – Patterns of geometric or floral shapes used for decoration.
  • Calligraphy – Beautiful lettering using different scripts.
  • Inlay work – Decorations made by inserting pieces of coloured stones and glass into the walls.

The Architectural Elements of the Taj Mahal

The Taj Mahal was a masterpiece of design and construction by Emperor Shah Jahan in 1653. The iconic structure is a monumental example of Mughal architecture, blending elements from Indian, Persian, and Islamic architectural styles. The Building is made up of many different architectural components and includes:

  • A central dome on four minarets at each corner
  • An entrance gate encrusted with precious stones
  • Mushtaqs or recessed arches along the sides
  • A great marble terrace with flanking garden spaces
  • An inner chamber containing the cenotaphs of both Mumtaz Mahal and Shah Jahan
  • Miniature replicas of the Taj Mahal

The structural symmetries used to create the building have been compared to those found in several ancient Hindu temples such as Narasimha Swamy temple located at Hampi. While many contemporary Mughal structures feature projected or articulated facades that seldom correspond to their floor plans due to stylistic inspiration from Mughal court paintings found on the walls of palaces, the aerial view reveals that Taj Mahal follows strict floor plans including:

  1. Central double domes highlighted by four minarets at each corner
  2. Two chhatris with clean lines and right angles
  3. A three-tiered roof structure further consisting of octagonal drums which increase gradually in size towards its summit as additional forms of lightweight support subsystems on an essentially square base plan

This knowledge underscores both its purposeful symmetry and unified complexity while showcasing intricate detailing into its ornamental features that adorn the interior spaces forming unique arabesque patterns known for their complex geometry. These patterns echo subtle cosmological concepts throughout the building, adding to its rich expression. All these elements combine together in perfect harmony giving it a lavishness that strengthened imperial authority even after its completion seven centuries ago.

The Gardens of the Taj Mahal

The gardens of the Taj Mahal are considered to be an integral part of the structure, as they emphasize and complement the building’s elegance. The generally rectangular charbagh design forms four surrounding partitions with a central pool. The gardens have a total of 579 flowerbeds, six fountains, and a number of elegant walkways.

The Taj Mahal is surrounded by four gates, each inscribed with verses from the Quran in Arabic calligraphy. On either side of the gates are tall minarets made up of sandstone rings bound together with red mortar and tall pinnacles on top which are built using white marble. Nearby is a graceful bathhouse and pavilions which were once used for royal entertainment.

Other features around the gardens include:

  • Two Great Gateways situated opposite each other on either side of the Jamuna River that provided access to raised terraces overlooking the southern wall;
  • Two long ponds which lined either side of a long canal leading water to irrigate them;
  • An elaborate network of cascading canals running in symmetrical patterns around both sides and behind the Taj Mahal;
  • Canal crossings made up of more than twelve white marble lotus petals at various levels provide steps down into what was once said to be botanic gardens with trees planted according to species within hidden fountains among sunken walks full of scented flowers.

The magnificent architecture enables visitors to appreciate how nature, balance, beauty and harmony were essential components of Mughal construction – all integral elements within the legacy we see today in this iconic Mughal mausoleum owned by their descendants through Shah Jahan’s great grandson – The Aga Khan IV – Prince Karim El Hussaini who rules as Imam (spiritual leader) over 15 million Ismaili Muslims around the world today.

Cultural Significance

The Taj Mahal is a stunning symbol of India’s history and culture and is considered one of the most iconic buildings in the world. It is a stunning example of Mughal architecture, which was developed in the 16th and 17th centuries by the Mughal dynasty. It is a UNESCO World Heritage Site and is owned by the Government of India, with the Archaeological Survey of India taking responsibility for the maintenance.

This majestic building has had a significant effect on the culture of India, and the world, for centuries. Here are some of the effects it has had:

  • Preservation of Mughal architecture
  • Increased tourism to India
  • Inspiration of great works of art

The Taj Mahal is a lasting symbol of the power and beauty of India’s culture, and it will continue to be an inspiration for generations to come.

The Taj Mahal as a Symbol of Love

The impressive mausoleum known as the Taj Mahal has long been a symbol of eternal love. Built by the Mughal emperor Shah Jahan in memory of his beloved wife, Mumtaz Mahal, it is renowned as one of the seven wonders of the world and stands as a monument to their passionate union.

Completed in 1653, the marble structure was constructed over a period of 22 years and features both Islamic and Hindu ornamental features. Its walls are adorned with precision-cut carvings, intricate inlaid tiles and calligraphy that decorates both interior and exterior elements. At the top lies an enormous ebony dome supported by four graceful minarets that reach 74 meters into the sky. This awe-inspiring act of devotion testifies to its timeless impact on visitors from all parts of the globe.

Positioned along the banks of Yamuna River in Agar state, Taj Mahal has been declared a UNESCO World Heritage Site since 1983. Owned by the Government of India, it receives over 7 million visitors each year from all corners of the world who marvel at its remarkable beauty, elegance and classical designs featured throughout its complex grounds. With undying splendor and breathtaking brilliance, this legendary landmark will continue to inspire generations for centuries to come!

The Taj Mahal as a Symbol of Faith

The Taj Mahal is more than a great work of architecture, it is a symbol of faith and devotion. The historic monument was created by Mughal emperor Shah Jahan in memory of his late wife, Mumtaz Mahal. It stands as a testament to the power of love, with some likening it to the Rose and the Cross. For centuries, the marble mausoleum has been seen as an expression of romance but also as a cultural beacon for people around the world.

The magnificence of this structure transcends language and religion; its beauty draws people from all corners of the world regardless of their beliefs or backgrounds. Exhibiting intricate design and engineering techniques that are still admired today, its creation took decades to exclusively employ craftspeople from India who used ancient techniques but incorporated new approaches such as inlaid screen paintings. Ultimately completed in 1652CE, it serves both practical and symbolic purposes as far too perfect proportions have striking spiritual significance in Mughal architecture which associate divine perfection beyond human capabilities.

With its vast beauty being appreciated more than ever before, thousands continue to visit every year to witness its serene environment with features such as reflection pools containing precious stones acting like mirrors reflecting light improving visibility at night into twilight that engages all senses evoking a state of tranquility further emphasizing spiritual meanings associated with faiths looked upon globally by inspiring peace within those who gaze upon it. The Taj Mahal has stood tall now since centuries ago and will continue doing so for many years to come, encapsulating love forever timelessly despite what may come or go.


The construction of the Taj Mahal was a monumental undertaking, carried out by the Mughal Emperor Shah Jahan. It was a demonstration of his love for his late wife, and a lasting testament to the grandeur and power of the Mughal Empire.

Today, the Taj Mahal is a UNESCO World Heritage Site and a symbol of India’s rich history and culture. It is still owned and operated by the Indian government, and its beauty continues to draw millions of visitors each year.

  • The construction of the Taj Mahal was a monumental undertaking, carried out by the Mughal Emperor Shah Jahan.
  • Today, the Taj Mahal is a UNESCO World Heritage Site and a symbol of India’s rich history and culture.
  • It is still owned and operated by the Indian government, and its beauty continues to draw millions of visitors each year.

Summary of the Taj Mahal

The Taj Mahal is an iconic white marble mausoleum located in Agra, India. It was commissioned by Mughal Emperor Shah Jahan in memory of his beloved wife Mumtaz Mahal in 1632 and completed in 1648. The architectural marvel, inspired by Persian and Islamic architecture, is considered one of the greatest monuments to love built by an emperor out of devotion for his late wife.

The grand structure contains several primary components that add to its architectural complexity and beauty. Its impressive marble dome stands 178 feet high and reaches its highest point when combined with the four 43-meter minarets placed at each corner. It’s celebrated facade features intricate carvings, geometric patterns, arches, and inscriptions of scriptures from the Quran in elegant calligraphy. The main chamber contains two crypts that house Imam Zamin’s cenotaphs; a false cenotaph for Mumtaz Mahal and a cenotaph for Shah Jahan near it.

The Taj Mahal is currently owned by the Government of India as a part of their archaeological park but is managed by the Archaeological Survey of India (ASI) as a part of their tourist complex. Walls that originally encircled the Taj have been long gone but there is a ticketing system in place for visitors to explore the grounds upon entry into each section before entering the inner gates that lead to stairs up to its terrace. Enhancements have been made throughout the years such as railings around the entire terrace platform are covered with netting to prevent birds from flying into many parts’ glass windows or damage sculptures from inside or outside sources.

The Legacy of the Taj Mahal

The Taj Mahal has become an iconic symbol of romance and a testament to the enduring legacy of love between Emperor Shah Jahan and his beloved wife Mumtaz Mahal. The story of the Taj Mahal’s construction continues to captivate visitors from around the world. Today, the Taj Mahal is not only celebrated as a World Heritage Site by UNESCO, but it is also owned and maintained by the Government of India. As such, it is considered a symbol of national pride throughout the country and stands as one of the Seven Wonders of the World.

For almost 400 years, The Taj Mahal has proudly preserved its timeless grandeur for people around the world to enjoy – making it one of India’s most treasured cultural artifacts, reflecting its rich history, artistry and craftsmanship with every glance.

  • Iconic symbol of romance
  • World Heritage Site by UNESCO
  • Owned and maintained by the Government of India
  • Symbol of national pride
  • Seven Wonders of the World
  • Preserved its timeless grandeur
  • Rich history, artistry, and craftsmanship